About Abacus

What is Abacus?Abacus is an ancient calculating device having its roots in Asia since ages. Abacus in today's times time is made of wood, metal or plastic rectangular frame with freely sliding 5 beads over vertical rods. These beads are parted by a at-least fixed horizontal bar where 1 bead over the vertical bar is placed above the fixed horizontal bar and the remaining 4 beads below the fixed horizontal bar. The beads above the fixed horizontal bar represent number 5 whereas other each of the 4 beads below represent number 1.

Any bead which moves towards the fixed horizontal bar gains value and when it moves away from the fixed horizontal bar losses value, which can be interpreted as 1 bead below the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means 1 on abacus and 4 beads below the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means 4 and so as the case with 1 bead above the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means 5. moving away from the fixed horizontal bar is -1, -4 or -5 as the number of beads may be. Vertical rods on Abacus are used to represent the place value of number. If the centre rod of Abacus is place of One's or Unit, the immediate next rod to the left is the place of Ten's and the immediate nest rod to the left of Ten's is Hundred's and so on and so forth for thousand, 100 Thousand, Million's etc. Learning the skills to operate Abacus can easily enable a person to perform Arithmetic Operations of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Square Roots, Cube Roots etc. with ease after practicing the methods. In the today’s time children love learning this tool and through guided Abacus Training they even can imagine abacus in their photographic mental ability to perform rigid calculations even faster than anyone attempting it on a calculators or computer.

This ancient tool of calculation has now become a Supplementary Education to strengthen children's skills for Fast and Accurate Math ability with enhancing and polishing the brain functions like Concentration, Focus, Listening, Analysing, Comprehending, Imagination, Retention, Memory, Perseverance, Creative Intelligence etc. So the modern definition of abacus is changed to, ' A math tool for brain exercise"

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What is an Abacus?

Abacus is mechanical calculation device which requires manual operation for finding solutions to arithmetic problems. A rectangular frame generally made of wood, metal, plastic (in today’s time) with several vertical rods mounted with five freely moving beads with a horizontal beam within the frame, differentiating one bead upwards and a set of four beads below it.

The Abacus used worldwide today is latest evolution from 1/5 bead based Japanese Soroban, popular due to its relevance to the modern mathematical number system.

**Why we Need Abacus Training?**

“Need is the Father of Demand”, Intelligent Mind is the need of this time.

Since Ages, Education system around the all the parts of the world is developed to give opportunity to access accumulated knowledge of work done by precedents in various fields, of Science, Social, Math, Literature, History, Skills etc.

And in the modern world now the definition has improved with, “Creating opportunities for it Students to learn and contribute back to its ever increasing Knowledge Bank”. “Grabbing Opportunities at Right Time Brings Success, You have to be capable enough to know what is an opportunity, how to grab it, what to do with it, after you grab it”**Power lies in the Brain:**

Our brain is a thinking organ that learns and grows by interacting with information through perception and action. Mental stimulation improves brain function and actually protects against cognitive decline, as does physical exercise. Mental Functions like ability to memorize, ability concentration, ability to analyze, listening skills, creative intelligence, play a key role in making our children to acquire knowledge, understand and if possibly create and present distinct information out of the same.

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Abacus is an ancient calculating device having its roots in Asia since ages.

Abacus in today's time is made of wood, metal or plastic rectangular frame with freely sliding 5 beads over vertical rods. These beads are parted by a at-least one fixed horizontal bar where 1 bead over the vertical bar is placed above the fixed horizontal bar and the remaining 4 beads below the fixed horizontal bar.

The beads above the fixed horizontal bar represent number 5 whereas other each of the 4 beads below represent number 1.

Any bead which moves towards the fixed horizontal bar gains value and when it moves away from the fixed horizontal bar losses value, which can be interpreted as 1 bead below the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means +1 on abacus and 4 beads below the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means +4 and so as the case with 1 bead above the fixed horizontal bar moving towards the fixed horizontal bar means +5.moving away from the fixed horizontal bar is -1, -4 or -5 as the number of beads may be.

Vertical rods on Abacus are used to represent the place value of number. If the centre rod of Abacus is place of One's or Unit, the immediate next rod to the left is the place of Ten's and the immediate nest rod to the left of Ten's is Hundred's and so on and so forth for thousand, 100 Thousand, Million's etc.

Learning the skills to operate Abacus can easily enable a person to perform Arithmetic Operations of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Square Roots, Cube Roots etc. with ease after practicing the methods. In the today’s time children love learning this tool and through guided Abacus Training they even can imagine abacus in their photographic mental ability to perform rigid calculations even faster than anyone attempting it on a calculators or computer.

This ancient tool of calculation has now become a Supplementary Education to strengthen children's skills for Fast and Accurate Math ability with enhancing and polishing the brain functions like Concentration, Focus, Listening, Analysing, Comprehending, Imagination, Retention, Memory, Perseverance, Creative Intelligence etc. so the modern definition of abacus is changed to, ' A math tool for brain exercise"

Abacus Math is method, which allows delivering the popular modern benefits of Abacus learning in structured way. Abacus Math is systematic skill development course for kids to learn to operate Abacus for calculations and gradual development of mental arithmetic skills by imaging abacus in one’s mind. Abacus Math is an effective but slow learning course. It is important to ensure to keep the interest of kids intact in the course. So for the reasons a good Abacus Math Course is developed as a step by step progressive course which focuses initially on developing finger techniques of operating Abacus followed by methods of Addition & Subtraction with a mix of introducing new methods of calculations like Multiplication, Division, Percentages at such a right time that interest of kids learning the operation is maintained in a balanced way, that they stick to the course for completion.

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Abacus is an invention by ancients. This ancient tool was invented to deal with big number calculations with faster accuracy. In early ages, it was difficult to imagine counting without numbers, there was a time when written numbers did not existed. The earliest counting device was own hands and fingers. Larger quantities (larger than ten human-fingers could represent) were counted with various natural items available these times like pebbles, twigs etc. as a help to count. Merchants who traded goods not only needed a way to count goods, which they deal with in business of buying and selling, but also to calculate the cost of those goods.

Abacus then invented was this need of calculation for trade and accounting.

Abacus Math Class is structured method of learning and practicing the skills of operating Abacus to perform basic math or arithmetic operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division etc. Kids need a guided envoirnment where the can take the instrcutions and practice the skills to perform mental arithmetic for mental math faster with accuracy and much more. Learning Abacus Math to perform Arithmetic Operations not only improves the ability to perform Mental Arithmetic for Mental Math, but also provides a beneficial ripple effect to their lives by Strengthening their Brain Functions.

As the training progresses children deal with numbers and its operation as play way object in form bead sliding over a rod for operations like +, -, x, , %, , etc. making numbers and their operation in various math processes a playful and joyful activity for kids.

Learning the methods of Abacus Math enables children to solve their questions faster with great accuracy, this brings them repeated success by regularly scoring high marks in the subject. This Success ripples into Interest for Math.

Performing Mental Arithmetic by the process of Imaging Abacus inside the mind stimulates Visual Memory, and its repeated usage improves it further allowing the brain to think, plan, vision, interpret thoughts spatially.

Operating Abacus and performing Arithmetic Process involves regular Solving by the way of Oral Math Question Solving Dictation and Solving by the way of Reading Dictated Math Question involves most of the sensory parts like Fingers, Hands, Eyes and Ears to co-ordinate with Mind for time to find a math result. This continuous practice of Time (plus) attention with increasing difficulty levels by way of more numbers per question and time target to solve set of questions is nothing but improved concentration.

The most recongnised person is one who is most creative in its actions. Abacus Math action involves use image thinking, picture memory and spatial thinking for performing Mental Arithmetic, these functions of our brain are seated in the Right Brain and Right Brain is the seat for Creative Intelligence. Its continuous usage stimulates the right brain to deliver healthy and active work for from a Creative Mind.

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**Evolution of Abacus**

Abacus? . . . . . .What is Abacus?

A very simple tool then why it is so difficult to understand it?

Abacus is present in our culture since ancient times and has it reference nearly in every ancient culture. I found references of Abacus in the ancient history of Mesopotamian Abacus, Egyptian Abacus, Persian Abacus, Greek Abacus, Roman Abacus, Chinese Abacus, Indian Abacus, Japanese Abacus, Korean Abacus, American Abacus etc.

Abacus had been tool for calculations in the ancient times by various cultures but limited to the knowledge of time for numbers, number system and method of calculations.

Each of these Abacus is called with different names, like in Hindi it is called it called Gintara (Couting Guitara), Chinese it is called Suan Pan (Couting Tray) , In Russian it is called Sckoty, in Japanese it is called Soroban (Counting Tray), in Korean it is called jupan. Meaning resulting into the one and only one idea of recording the numbers in the form of beads on a structuredly arranged on either strings in a frame or plate with grooves as per best known number system of time in which it is being used.

Logically understanding evolution of Abacus from simple calculation tool to advance calculation tool is directly connected to our understanding of numbers and number system and further evolving 'THE CALCULATION TOOL' up to the latest known understandings. The Abacus we see and use today has been evolved with time of our understanding on the same and the recent updated tool with 1/4 bead arrangement meets the purpose accordingly.

Modern Abacus with 1/4 bead arrangement we are using today uses the decimal place value system introduced by the world accepted numbers system of Hindu-Arabic Number System.

**Abacus and Hindu–Arabic numerals**

**Gerbert learned of Hindu–Arabic digits and applied this knowledge to the abacus, but according to Charles Seife without the numeral of zero. According to William of Malmesbury (c. 1080–c. 1143), Gerbert got the idea of the computing device of the abacus from a Spanish Arab. The abacus that Gerbert reintroduced into Europe had its length divided into 27 parts with 9 number symbols (this would exclude zero, which was represented by an empty column) and 1,000 characters in all, crafted out of animal horn by a shieldmaker of Rheims. According to his pupil Richer, Gerbert could perform speedy calculations with his abacus that were extremely difficult for people in his day to think through in using only Roman numerals. Due to Gerbert's reintroduction, the abacus became widely used in Europe once again during the 11th century.**

**"The Japanese Soroban's Brief History"**

The soroban's physical resemblance to the Chinese suanpan clearly indicates its origin. The number of beads, however, is similar to the Roman abacus, which had four beads below and one at the top.

Most historians on the soroban agree that it has its roots on the suanpan's importation to Japan via the Korean peninsula in the 15th century. When the suanpan first became native to Japan as the soroban (with its beads modified for ease of use), it had two heavenly beads and five earth beads. But the soroban was not widely used until the 17th century, although it was in use by Japanese merchants since its introduction. Once the soroban became popularly known, several Japanese mathematicians, including Seki Kowa, studied it extensively. These studies became evident on the improvements on the soroban itself and the operations used on it.

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**In Chinese numerals, a circle (O) is used to write zero in Suzhou numerals. Many historians think it was imported from Indian numerals by Gautama Siddha in 718, but some think it was created from the Chinese text space filler "◊".**

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**In the construction of the soroban itself, the number of beads had begun to decrease, especially at a time when the basis for Japanese currency was shifted from hexadecimal to decimal. In around 1850, one heavenly bead was removed from the suanpan configuration of two heavenly beads and five earth beads. This new Japanese configuration existed concurrently with the suanpan until the start of the Meiji era, after which the suanpan fell completely out of use. In 1891, Irie Gary further removed one earth bead, forming the modern configuration of one heavenly bead and four earth beads. This configuration was later reintroduced in 1930 and became popular in the 1940s.**

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**Chinese and Japanese finally adopted the Hindu–Arabic numerals in the 19th century, abandoning counting rods.**

**Also, when the suanpan was imported to Japan, it came along with it its division table. The method of using the table was called kyukiho ("nine returning method") in Japanese, while the table itself was called the hassan ( "eight calculation"). The division table used along with the suanpan was more popular because of the original hexadecimal configuration of Japanese currency. But because using the division table was complicated and it should be remembered along with the multiplication table, it soon fell out in 1935 (soon after the soroban's present form was reintroduced in 1930), with a so-called standard method replacing the use of the division table. This standard method of division, recommended today by the Japan Abacus Committee, was in fact an old method which used counting rods, first suggested by mathematician Momokawa Chubei in 1645, and therefore had to compete with the division table during the latter's heyday.**

**Now it is more important to note the following:"A Brief About - History of Hindu-Arabic Number System"**

A decimal place system has been traced back to ca. 500 in India. Before that epoch, the Brahmi numeral system was in use; that system did not encompass the concept of the place-value of numbers. Instead, Brahmi numerals included additional symbols for the tens, as well as separate symbols for *hundred* and *thousand*.

The Indian place-system numerals spread to neighboring Persia, where they were picked up by the conquering Arabs. In 662, a Nestorian bishop living in what is now called Iraq said:

I will omit all discussion of the science of the Indians ... of their subtle discoveries in astronomy — discoveries that are more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians - and of their valuable methods of calculation which surpass description. I wish only to say that this computation is done by means of nine signs. If those who believe that because they speak Greek they have arrived at the limits of science would read the Indian texts they would be convinced even if a little late in the day that there are others who know something of value.

The addition of zero as a tenth positional digit is documented from the 7th century by Brahmagupta, though the earlier Bakhshali Manuscript, written sometime before the 5th century, also included zero. But it is in Khmer numerals of modern Cambodia where the first extant material evidence of zero as a numerical figure, dating its use back to the seventh century, is found.

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**As it was from the Arabs that the Europeans learned this system, the Europeans called them Arabic numerals; the Arabs refer to their numerals as Indian numerals. In academic circles they are called the Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals.**

**The significance of the development of the positional number system is probably best described by the French mathematician Pierre Simon Laplace (1749–1827) who wrote:**

**It is India that gave us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by the means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but its very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions, and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest minds produced by antiquity.**

**Tobias Dantzig, the father of George Dantzig had this to say in Number:**

**This long period of nearly five thousand years saw the rise and fall of many civilizations, each leaving behind a heritage of literature, art, philosophy, and religion. But what was the net achievement in the field of reckoning, the earliest art practiced by man? An inflexible numeration so crude as to make progress well nigh impossible, and a calculating device so limited in scope that even elementary calculations called for the services of an expert [...] Man used these devices for thousands of years without contributing a single important idea to the system [...] Even when compared with the slow growth of ideas during the dark ages, the history of reckoning presents a peculiar picture of desolate stagnation. When viewed in this light, the achievements of the unknown Hindu, who some time in the first centuries of our era discovered the principle of position, assumes the importance of a world event.**

**Adoption in East Asia**

**In China, Gautama Siddha introduced Indian numerals with zero in 718, but Chinese mathematicians did not find them useful, as they had already had the decimal positional counting rods.**

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